Hardware Architectures of Visible Light Communication Transmitter and Receiver for Beacon-based Indoor Positioning Systems

Phuc Duc Nguyen

Abstract


High-speed applications of Visible Light Communications have been presented recently in which response times of photodiode-based VLC receivers are critical points. Typical VLC receiver routines, such as soft-decoding of run-length limited (RLL) codes and FEC codes was purely processed on embedded firmware, and potentially cause bottleneck at the receiver. To speed up the performance of receivers, ASIC-based VLC receiver could be the solution. Unfortunately, recent works on soft-decoding of RLL and FEC have shown that they are bulky and time-consuming computations. This causes hardware implementation of VLC receivers becomes heavy and unrealistic. In this paper, we introduce a compact Polar-code-based VLC receivers. in which flicker mitigation of the system can be guaranteed even without RLL codes. In particular, we utilized the centralized bit-probability distribution of a pre-scrambler and a Polar encoder to create a non-RLL flicker mitigation solution. At the receiver, a 3-bit soft-decision filter was implemented to analyze signals received from the VLC channel to extract log-likelihood ratio (LLR) values and feed them to the Polar decoder. Therefore, the proposed receiver could exploit the soft-decoding of the Polar decoder to improve the error-correction performance of the system. Due to the non-RLL characteristic, the receiver has a preeminent code-rate and a reduced complexity compared with RLL-based receivers. We present the proposed VLC receiver along with a novel very-large-scale integration (VLSI) architecture, and a synthesis of our design using FPGA/ASIC synthesis tools.


References


A. I. Y. M. Y. Mostafa Z. C., M. T. H., “A comparative survey of optical wireless technologies: Architectures and applications,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 9819–9840, 2018.

L. U. Khan, “Visible light communication: Applications, architecture, standardization and research challenges,” Digital Communications and Networks, vol. 3, pp. 78–88, 2017.

L. F. Junhai Luo and H. Li, “Indoor positioning systems

based on visible light communication: State of the art,”

IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 19, pp. 2871–2893, 2017.

T. Tuan-Kiet, H.-T. HUYNH, D.-P. NGUYEN, L. DinhDung, T. Thi-Hong, and Y. NAKASHIMA, “Demonstration of a visible light receiver using rolling-shutter smartphone camera,” in 2018 International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Communications (ATC). IEEE, 2018, pp. 214–219.

P. X. Lifang F.. Rose Q. H., Jianping W. and Y. Qian, “Applying vlc in 5g networks: Architectures and keys technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 30, pp. 77–83, 2016.

F. S. O. T. S. Yoshizawa, S. Handa, “A simple but effective

approach for visible light beacon-based positioning systems with smartphone,” in Proceedings of IEEE CSPA2016, 2016, pp. 32–25.

Q. Liang and M. Liu, “Plugo: a vlc systematic perspective of large-scale indoor localization,” arXiv: 1709.06926v1, vol. cs.NI, 2017.

H. O. T. F. T. Y. S. A. K. K. T. Yamazato, N. Kawagita, “The uplink visible light communication beacon system for universal traffic management,” IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 22 282–22 290, 2017.

e. a. Fang, Junbin, “An efficient flicker-free fec coding scheme for dimmable visible light communication based on polar codes,” IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 9, pp. 1–10, 2017.

K.-J. H. Ye-sheng Kuo, Pat Pannuto and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: Indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of MobiCom’14. ACM, 2014, pp. 447–458.

W. He and S. Kim, “Bit-level soft run-length limited decoding algorithm for visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 28.3, pp. 237–240, 2016.

——, “Soft-input soft-output run-length limited decoding for visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 28.3, pp. 225–228, 2016.

——, “Dimming control systems with polar codes in visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 29.19, pp. 1651–1654, 2017.

T. H. T. Y. N. Dinh Dung Le, Duc Phuc Nguyen, “Joint

polar and run-length limited decoding scheme for visible light communications,” IEICE Communication Express, vol. 7, pp. 19–24, 2018.

S. Rajagopal, R. D. Roberts, and S.-K. Lim, “Ieee 802.15.

visible light communication: modulation schemes and dimming support,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 50, no. 3, 2012.

H. Wang and S. Kim, “New rll decoding algorithm for multiple candidates in visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 15–17, 2015.

S. Kim and S.-Y. Jung, “Novel fec coding scheme for dimmable visible light communication based on the modified reed–muller codes,” IEEE photonics technology letters, vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 1514–1516, 2011.

T. H. Tran, D. P. Nguyen, and Y. Nakashima, “PER evaluation of k-min viterbi decoder for wireless sensors, in 2016 10th International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST). IEEE, 2016, pp. 1–6.

Z. Babar, H. V. Nguyen, P. Botsinis, D. Alanis, D. Chandra, S. X. Ng, and L. Hanzo, “Unity-rate codes maximize the normalized throughput of on–off keying visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 291–294, 2017.

Z. Babar, M. A. M. Izhar, H. V. Nguyen, P. Botsinis, D. Alanis, D. Chandra, S. X. Ng, R. G. Maunder, and L. Hanzo, “Unary-coded dimming control improves onoff keying visible light communication,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 255–264, 2018.

D. P. Nguyen, T. H. Tran, and Y. Nakashima, “A multi-mode error-correction solution based on split-concatenation for wireless sensor nodes,” Journal of Communications, vol. 12, no. 2, 2017.

S. H. Lee and J. K. Kwon, “Turbo code-based error correction scheme for dimmable visible light communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 24, no. 17, pp. 1463–1465, 2012.

L. Feng, R. Q. Hu, J. Wang, and P. Xu, “Fountain codebased error control scheme for dimmable visible light communication systems,” Optics Communications, vol. 347, pp. 20–24, 2015.

X. Lu and J. Li, “New miller codes for run-length control

in visible light communications,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1798–1810, 2018.

S. Kim, “Adaptive fec codes suitable for variable dimming values in visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 967–969, 2015.

H. Wang and S. Kim, “Decoding of polar codes for intersymbol interference in visible-light communication,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1111–1114, 2018.

H. Vangala, Y. Hong, and E. Viterbo, “Efficient algorithms for systematic polar encoding,” IEEE communications letters, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 17–20, 2016.

D.-P. Nguyen, D.-D. Le, T.-H. Tran, H.-T. Huynh, and Y. Nakashima, “Hardware implementation of a non-rll soft-decoding beacon-based visible light communication receiver,” in 2018 International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Communications (ATC). IEEE, 2018, pp. 208–213.

H. Tagami, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyata, K. Ouchi, K. Sawada,

K. Kubo, K. Kuno, H. Yoshida, K. Shimizu, T. Mizuochi et al., “A 3-bit soft-decision ic for powerful forward error correction in 10-gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE journal of solid-state circuits, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1695–1705, 2005.

D.-D. Le, D.-P. Nguyen, T.-H. Tran, and Y. Nakashima, “Log-likelihood ratio calculation using 3-bit soft-decision for error correction in visible light communication systems,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 2210–2212, 2018.

O. Dizdar and E. Arıkan, “A high-throughput energy efficient implementation of successive cancellation decoder for polar codes using combinational logic,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 436–447, 2016.

E. Arikan, “Systematic polar coding,” IEEE communications letters, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 860–862, 2011.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21553/rev-jec.234

Copyright (c) 2019 REV Journal on Electronics and Communications


Copyright © 2011-2018
Radio and Electronics Association of Vietnam
All rights reserved