BAT Algorithm Based Beamformer for Interference Suppression by Controlling the Complex Weight

Tong Van Luyen, Truong Vu Bang Giang


In this study, an adaptive beamformer for pattern nulling of Uniformly Spaced Linear Array (ULA) antennas, which utilized BAT algorithm (BA) to suppress interferences, has been proposed. This pattern nulling has been obtained by controlling the complex weight (both the phase and the amplitude) of each array element. So as to verify the proposal, a number of scenarios of ULA pattern imposed the pre-set nulls have been carried out and compared with those of accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO). The proposed beamformer has demonstrated the capability to place with precise single, multiple, and broad nulls at arbitrary interference directions, suppress side lobes, and maintain a predefined beamwidth. Moreover, the beamformer shows faster convergence and higher efficiency regarding null steering and side lobe suppression in pattern synthesis, as compared with an APSO based beamformer.

Full Text:



H.L. Van Trees, Optimum Array Processing: Part IV of Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, chap. 1, pp. 1-12, John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

R.L. Haupt, Antenna Arrays: A Computational Approach, chap. 8, sec. 8.4, pp. 484-515, John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

K. Guney and M. Onay, “Bees algorithm for null synthesizing of linear antenna arrays by controlling only the element positions,” Neural Network World, vol. 16, pp. 153–169, 2007.

K. Guney and M. Onay, “Amplitude-only pattern nulling of linear antenna arrays with the use of bees algorithm”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 70, pp. 21–36, 2007.

T.V. Luyen and T.V.B. Giang, “Null-Steering Beamformer Using BAT Algorithm”, Journal of Applied Computational Electromagnetic Society, submitted for publication, 2017.

A. Akdagli and K. Guney, “Null steering of linear antenna arrays by phase perturbations using modified tabu search algorithm,” J. Communications Technology and Electronics, vol. 49, pp. 37–42, 2004.

M. Mouhamadou, P. Vaudon, and M. Rammal, “Smart antenna array patterns synthesis: Null steering and multi-user beamforming by phase control,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 60, pp. 95–106, 2006.

K. Guney and M. Onay, “ Bees algorithm for interference suppression of linear antenna arrays by controlling the phase-only and both the amplitude and phase”, Int. J. Expert System with Applications, vol. 37, iss. 4, pp. 3129-3135, 2010.

T.V. Luyen and T.V.B. Giang, “ Interference Suppression of ULA Antennas by Phase-only Control Using BAT Algorithm”, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, submitted for publication, 2017.

D. Karaboga, K. Guney, and A. Akdagli, “Antenna array pattern nulling by controlling both the amplitude and the phase using modified touring ant colony optimisation algorithm”, Int. J. Electronics, vol. 91, pp. 241–251, 2004.

M. Mouhamadou and P. Vaudon, “Complex weight control of array pattern nulling”. Int. Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 17, pp. 304–310, 2007.

H. Steyskal, R. A. Shore, and R. L. Haupt, “Methods for null control and their effects on the radiation pattern,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 34, pp. 404–409, 1986.

D.W. Boeringer and D. H. Werner, “Particle swarm optimization versus genetic algorithms for phased array synthesis,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 52, pp. 771–779, 2004.

K.C. Lee and J. Y. Jhang, “Application of particle swarm algorithm to the optimization of unequally spaced antenna arrays”, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 20, pp. 2001–2012, 2006.

M.R. Khan and V. Tuzlukov, "Null steering beamforming for wireless communication system using genetic algorithm", 2011 IEEE International Conference on Microwave Technology & Computational Electro-magnetics, pp. 289-292, Beijing, 2011.

B.K. Yeo and Y.L. Lu, "Adaptive array digital beamforming using complex-coded particle swarm optimization-genetic algorithm," Proc. 2005 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference,Suzhou, China, 4-7 Dec. 2005, pp.778-780.

X.S. Yang, Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms, chap. 10, pp. 141-154, Elsevier, 2014.

P.v.florence and G S N Raju, “ Synthesis of Linear Antenna Arrays using Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm”, Int. J. Computer Applications, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 43-49, 2014.

X.S. Yang, “A new metaheuristic Bat-inspired Algorithm”, Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol. 284, pp. 65-74, 2010.

Q. Yao, Y. Lu, “Efficient beamforming using bat algorithm”, 2016 IEEE MTT-S Int. Con.on Numerical Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Modeling and Optimization (NEMO), Jul. 2016.

R. A. Shore, “A proof of the odd-symmetry of the phases for minimum weight perturbation phase-only null synthesis”, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-32, pp. 528–530, May. 1984.

T.V. Luyen and T.V.B. Giang, “Design of LMS Based Adaptive Beamformer for ULA Antennas”, VNU Journal of Science: Comp. Science & Com. Eng., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 72-79, 2016.

C.L. Dolph, “A current distribution for broadside arrays which optimizes the relationship between beam width and side-lobe level,” Proc. IRE, vol. 34, pp. 335-348, Jun. 1946.


Copyright (c) 2018 REV Journal on Electronics and Communications

Copyright © 2011-2022
Radio and Electronics Association of Vietnam
All rights reserved